2022 №25

Author: Anna S. Akimova
УДК / UDK: 821.161.1.0
About the author:

Anna S. Akimova — PhD in Philology, Senior Researcher, A.M. Gorky Institute of World Literature of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, Russia.


E-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.


The article presents the first publication of the draft autograph entitled “The Competitors.” It based on the text from a manuscript written by A.N. Tolstoy in 1909, which is now kept in the Institute of Russian Literature of the Russian Academy of Sciences and contains poetry and prose, sketches and notes to the works of the 1910s. The novel “The Competitor” (singular) was published in the Saint Petersburg almanac “Love” in 1910. The textology of Tolstoy’s first works, the novel-stylizations “The Competitor” and “The Jasper Notebook”, did not attract the attention of researchers. Meanwhile the draft autograph contains not only the original version of the title of the story but also details of the description of manor’s life and characteristics of the main character uncle Kobelev. Preparing the text for publication, the author abandon them. The examples of author’s edits are studied in the introduction. The dynamic transcription helps us to show Tolstoy’s work on the images of the old hussar and his nephew. The comparison of the draft autograph with the published story makes it possible to describe the development of the text, to characterize the images of the main characters and the features of the image of the manor in the writer’s early prose. Tolstoy returned to the story “The Competitor,” corrected it and included in the collected works which attests to the value in the writer’s work one of the first texts devoted to the ‘manor theme’ and to the description of the estate’s life.

Keywords: A.N. Tolstoy, ‘manor text’, world of things, draft autograph, manuscript, transcription.
For citation:

Akimova, A.S. “‘The Competitors’ by A.N. Tolstoy: the Question of the Developing the Image of the Estate in the Writer’s Prose.” Literaturnyi fakt, 2022, no. 3 (25), pp. 195–210. (In Russ.)


1. Akimova, A.S. “A.N. Tolstoi. ‘Raz v zhizni.’ Chernovoi avtograf iz rukopisnoi tetradi” [“A.N. Tolstoy. ‘Once in a Lifetime.’ A Rough Autograph from a Handwritten Notebook”]. Russkaia literatura, no. 2, 2020, pp. 105–114. DOI: 10.31860/0131-6095-2020-2-105-115 (In Russ.)

2. Krestinskii, Iu.A. A.N. Tolstoi. Zhizn’ i tvorchestvo (Kratkii ocherk) [A.N. Tolstoi. Life and Work (Brief Story)]. Moscow, Akademiia nauk SSSR Publ., 1960. 313 p. (In Russ.)

3. Starchakov, A. Al.N. Tolstoi. Kriticheskii ocherk [Al.N. Tolstoy. Critical Essay]. Leningrad, Gosudarstvennoe izdatel’stvo khudozhestvennoi literatury Publ., 1935. 116 p. (In Russ.)

4. Tolstoi, A.N. “Dva anekdota ob odnom i tom zhe” [“Two Anecdotes about the Same”]. Liubov’ [Love]. St. Petersburg, 1910, pp. 249–256. (In Russ.)

5. Tolstoi, A.N. Sochinenia: v 10 t. [Works: in 10 vols.]. Moscow, Knigoizdatel’stvo pisatelei v Moskve, 1911–1918. (In Russ.)

6. Tolstoi, A.N. Sobranie sochinenii: v 15 t. [Collected Works: in 15 vols.]. Moscow, Leningrad, Gosudarstvennoe izdatel’stvo khudozhestvennoi literatury, 1927–1931. (In Russ.)

Acknowledgements: This study was carried out at IWL RAS with a grant from the Russian Science Foundation (project No. 22-18-00051).